Tetanus

Parent? Worker? Capitalist? Student? Everyone's had an instant that brought up the need for a Tetanus shot, whether it was for your kid stepping on a nail or being told to take a shot by your school, don't be nervous, this blog will help you understand more. Tetanus is a disease of the nervous system and its caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani [...]

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What is Rabies?

Rabies is a virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. The virus can enter many types of mammal cells and cause them to produce and bud off new viruses, but it is particularly adept at attacking nerve cells and glandular cells. The bite introduces large amounts of saliva, which contains abundant rabies virus because of the virus's efficient growth in salivary glands.Animals most likely to transmit [...]

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Zika Virus

Zika is a virus that is predominantly spread by infected mosquitoes (Aedes Aegypti), other viruses that are spread by this mosquito include Yellow Fever and West Nile virus. The Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda. Human cases of Zika virus infection weren't monitored in the early twenty-first century, however, particularly in the Americas in 2015/16, it became predominant and gained international attention. [...]

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Hemophilia

Your blood has certain clotting factors that work with platelets to from blood clots. If any clotting factors are dysfunctional, the blood does not clot normally resulting in a disorder known as hemophilia. Hemophilia does not increase the amount you bleed, but increases the duration because the blood may clot slower or not at all. The severity of the condition depends on how much clotting protein is found in the blood. Small cuts are [...]

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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones in the body become incredibly more fragile increasing the chances of broken bones. This usually occurs in the bones of the hip, spine and wrists, but can also occur in any skeletal bone. Normal bone is mostly composed of collagen and calcium phosphate, which give bone its strength. However, people with osteoporosis [...]

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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is a condition that affects the cartilage of the hands, feet, spine and large weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees. It is the most frequent type of arthritis affecting millions of people yearly. Cartilage covers the end of bones coming together to from joints. This allows the bones to smoothly glide over each other instead of rubbing against each other [...]

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Kyphosis

Kyphosis, also known as hump back, is an excessive curvature of the upper spine and is one of the most common neural tube defects. It can occur at any age, but is most common in elderly women and adolescents. In majority of cases, kyphosis causes few health problems and does not require treatment. [...]

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Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever, a severe disease with the power to be an epidemic under conditions of poor sanitation, is caused by Salmonella Typhi. First the bacteria enter the intestines tissue, no symptoms for 2 weeks. Bacteria soon invade the bloodstream, often taking 10 days and causes a fever. Finally the bacteria are localized in the gallbladder and surrounding organs and cause lesions. [...]

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Meningitis

Meningitis is the inflammation or infection of the Meninges. What are Meninges? you may ask, it is the three-layered covering of the spinal cord and brain, think of it like the sheath of a sword. Evidently, if the sheath of your nerves is infected, serious repercussions ensue. It is characterized by severe headaches, vomiting, and pain and stiffness in the neck. Most symptoms correlate directly with the age of the infected, for example newborns may exhibit fever and hypothermia. The elderly may show lethargy, confusion, or disorientation. Generally, the germs that cause bacterial meningitis spread from one person to another by sharing saliva or spit [...]

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Skin Cancer - Melanoma

As summer is approaching and the weather is getting more sunny, there are several precautions you need to take in order to protect yourself from getting skin cancer. Being outside playing in the sun, exposes you to the harmful UV rays that come from the sun. It is estimated that 40% to 50% of fair-skinned people will develop at least one from of skin cancer by the age of 65. [...]

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Bladder Pain

You wake up from a good night's sleep and feel the need to use the restroom. You arrive at the restroom and attempt to do your business, but feel a stabbing pain in your abdomen. A wave of fear flood within you, wondering what might be the cause of your pain. You self-diagnose yourself online, and end up on this webpage. Here, we will discuss the common bladder conditions that can result in pain and how we can assist you. [...]

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Bacteria in the blood

Many species of bacteria have co-evolved with humans throughout the years to live in harmony. There are almost ten times as many bacterial cells than human cells in our bodies! Bacteria can be both beneficial and detrimental for our bodies. The beneficial bacteria can help break down and digest some substances that the human body cannot like some carbohydrates or small chain fatty acids. [...]

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Adrenal Mass

Adrenal mass is a condition where there is an irregular growth of a mass in the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland is located above each kidney and is triangular in shape. It consists of the adrenal cortex, otherwise known as the outer part, and the adrenal medulla, also known as the inner part. Both the outer and inner parts are responsible for the synthesis of specific hormones necessary for life. The adrenal cortex synthesizes hormones such as cortisone and aldosterone, and the adrenal medulla synthesizes hormones such as epinephrine. When irregular growth occurs within this gland, it interferes with the proper functioning and leads to hormonal imbalances, thus affecting everyday life [...]

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Lumps in the Groin

Lumps in the groin are a common condition that can occur for a variety of reasons. The groin is the part of the body located above your thighs, but below the lowest part of the stomach. Within this area, you have several lymph nodes which are present but can not be physically felt. There are several reasons for lumps in the groin, some of which include swollen lymph glands, skin infections, hernias and fatty lumps. [...]

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Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis

Hyperoxaluria is a condition in which there is an excess of oxalate present in the urine. This can lead to the formation of kidney stones as the excess oxalate binds with calcium in the urine. Oxalate is found naturally in food and is a chemical that is present in the body. However, oxalate itself does not have any use in the body and any excess quantities are excreted directly through urine [...]

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Vesicoureteral Reflex

Vesicoureteral reflex (VUR) is a condition in which urine flows back up the ureters into the kidneys. Normally, the ureters are responsible for carrying urine from the kidneys to the bladder where the urine is stored, until it is released. This condition is mostly found in children, and is usually the result of some of form of abnormality. The main symptom associated with VUR is the presence of a urinary tract infection (UTI).[...]

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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, better known as BPH, is a condition that causes the prostate gland to enlarge. This enlargement is dangerous as an enlarged prostate can disturb the flow of urine and lead to kidney, urinary tract and bladder problems. Despite BPH being a very serious condition, it is mostly common in older men. [...]

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Undescended Testes (Cryptorchidism)

During fetal development, testicles begin their descent from the abdomen with the guidance of the gubernaculum into the scrotum. The scrotum is a thin layer of skin that keeps the testes 2 degrees below body temperature to ensure proper sperm formation. Often, an undescended testicle is detected directly after child birth and is often due to premature birth, or improper descent by the gubernaculum. This can occur to one testicle, but in rare cases, both testicles may not have descended into the scrotum. [...]

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Hydronephrosis

Your urinary tract is composed of the kidney, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Your kidneys filter around 180 litres of blood a day producing 2 litres of urine. Urine contains all the excess waste and fluid, that the body did not need. From the kidneys, urine drains into the renal pelvis where it travels down the ureters and into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until it is ready to be excreted out of the urethra. [...]

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Interstitial cystitis/ bladder pain syndrome

Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome is a chronic bladder issue that is associated with a feeling of pain and pressure in the bladder. Along with this pain, there can be difficulties in other areas of the urinary system which can last for more than 6 weeks. Symptoms can often be confused with a bladder infection, since it may often feel like one. Many doctors think that interstitial cystitis may be a combination of several diseases making it a tricky disease to diagnose and treat. [...]

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Peyronie's Disease

Peyronie's disease penis involves the accumulation of scar tissue inside the penis leading to a bent or curvature of an erect penis. The disease most often affects older men, but can also affect younger men and is not a normal part of aging. Those with Peyronie's may experience pain and develop scarring in other parts of the body [...]

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Urologic Cancer

Bladder cancer, kidney cancer, prostate cancer and testicular cancer are all forms of urologic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is the most common form of cancer in males and approximately one out of every 10 men will be diagnosed at some point in their lives. For more information on prostate cancer, go the article specifically on it [...]

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What is a concussion?

Concussions, also known as mild traumatic brain injuries, are one of the most common injuries in high contact sports such as hockey, football and boxing. Concussions are usually caused by a rapid blow to the head, shaking your brain back and forth within your skull. Sometimes, concussions are associated with loss of consciousness, and other times people may not even know that they have one. [...]

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Urine Problems

Imagine this, after going to the washroom you take a curious look back into the toilet bowl. Sound familiar? Well, it's a natural response we do to check up on our health. Our urine illustrates our physical condition by eliminating waste from our bodies and in healthy individuals, the urine is usually clear and odorless. However, sometimes it may smell different, feel different, or look different. Naturally, our inclination tells us that something is wrong. In this blog, we will explore some common types of urine-related issues: hematuria, proteinuria, and pyuria. Most often, the problems can be traced back to a urinary tract infection (UTI) [...]

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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Ever experience numbness or pain in your hand and wrist after typing away for long periods of time? What you are experiencing is known as carpal tunnel syndrome and is a result from the build up of pressure on your median nerve. The median nerve is responsible for sensation and feeling in your hand and wrist and has innervations to many of the muscles there as well. The reason it is called carpal tunnel is because the median nerve is contained below a sheet of ligaments that forms a sort of tunnel with the bones of your wrist, or carpals[...]

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Bed Wetting

Waking up in the middle of the night with soggy sheets is a familiar scene for many of us when we were children. This does not mean that you were not toilet trained, and it is a normal part of child development. Before the age of seven, bed-wetting is not a huge concern and could just mean that the child is still developing night-time bladder control [...]

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Meningitis

There are protective layers that surround the brain and spinal cord called the meninges. The meningeal layers allow for cerebral spinal fluid to be circulated through your spine and into the ventricles located in your brain. This is extremely important since this is how your brain receives most of its blood supply [...]

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Female Incontinence

Urinary incontinence occurs when urine escapes the bladder unintentionally and typically affects women more than men as a result of pregnancy, childbirth, menopause, weak/ overactive bladder muscles and nerve damage. This phenomena is debilitating and involuntary, however, it is something that is very common and can be treated in various ways [...]

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Kidney Stones

The kidneys are one of the hardest working organs in the body filtering 180 liters of blood a day. From the blood, approximately 2 liters of urine are produced. The urine carries all the liquid waste from the blood and also maintains a stable balance of salts and other minerals in your blood. That is why it is recommended to drink at least 2 liters of water a day to accommodate for the volume lost when urinating [...]

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Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a surgery procedure in which a tiny camera is placed inside the knee joint in order to diagnose and treat knee pain. The arthroscopy camera provides the surgeon with vision to identify any reason for your discomfort including misaligned knee caps, torn menisci, and broken bones. There is also a surgical device placed in the camera, in order for the doctor to be able to perform any minor surgeries [...]

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Kidney Infection

Kidney infection is a severe type of UTI that can occur when bacteria travels through the urinary tract and reproduces to infect the kidneys. However, this can also happen if you develop an infection in another part of your body, which can spread into the bloodstream to the kidneys as well. [...]

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Prostate Cancer

The prostate is a small walnut shaped organ that is located directly below the bladder and surrounding the urethra in males. The prostate produces seminal fluid which helps transport, and protect the semen [...]

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Male STD

On one morning, you wake up and go about your usual business. You go to the washroom, ready to relieve yourself, and feel pain while urinating. Other times, you may see a curious lesion on your genitals. You panic, and wonder what might be going on. There are many causes of your symptoms, some are innocent while others require treatment. In this blog, we will focus on the guilty-sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

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Erectile Dysfunction Treatments

Have you been recently diagnosed with erectile dysfunction or think you may have erectile dysfunction? You might be confused, worried, or anxious. We understand how you might be feeling but would like to assure you that your feelings are normal. In this blog, we will discuss some treatment options available for you.

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Pap Test: How important is it?

How many times have you walked into a clinic and have heard of a Pap test but have very little information of it? This is the case for many as we avoid simple check-ups that can ultimately be lifesaving because of the little knowledge we have of them. Papanicolaou (Pap) test is among such tests which women are recommended to take that involves the cervix to detect for abnormalities.

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Vaginal Yeast Infections

Vaginal yeast infections occur when there is an imbalance of hormones. Typically, the vagina usually contains a balanced amount of bacteria and yeast. When we lack a hormone called estrogen, we lack the ability to kill harmful organisms in the vagina. Thus, causing an offset in the level of fungus, called candida, causing a yeast infection.

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Seasonal Misery: Hay Fever

For many Canadians, summer is the season to kick back and relax at the beach or go camping, but for some, it is the season of allergies. One of the very common allergies that Canadians struggle with is known as hay fever, seasonal allergies or allergic rhinitis. Each year, individuals allergic to tree pollen or grass pollen cough and sneeze but many mistake it to be a cold. So how can one know if they are allergic or not?

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Malaria

Malaria is an infectious disease that is transmitted through mosquitoes with the Plasmodium parasite. There are different variations of the parasite which can lead to more different and severe symptoms. The parasite manifests in red blood cells where they multiply until the cells rupture.

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Cycling, Is it Right for You?

Cycling is touted as a great physical activity to manage weight and maintain strong cardiovascular health. However, with any physical activity, there is the risk for harm. Individuals may suffer from neck and knee issues and can injure their back and hands. Most of these issues result from prolonged and repeated movements, while others result from injuries such as falling or colliding with an object. It is important to understand the common health issues bikers face and the prevention strategies available. [...]

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Tennis Elbow Prevention and Treatment

With any physical activity, there is a risk for injury and harm. Tennis elbow, in particular, is pain and swelling in the elbow resulting from repetitive gripping activities. Some common activities that involve gripping are tennis, fencing, and weightlifting. Individuals may also suffer from tennis elbow from typing, painting, or knitting. It can affect individuals of all ages so it is important to understand prevention strategies and treatment options. [...]

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Physical Activity and Injury Prevention

Eat healthy! Be active! Reduce stress! We constantly hear such advice from doctors, family, and friends and rightfully so. Physical activity reduces the risk of serious illnesses and builds mental strength by reducing stress. Physical activity also builds musculoskeletal health that can reduce the risk of orthopedic injuries. However, physical activity itself can actually result in orthopedic injuries and it is important to understand strategies to lower the risk of harm. Although engaging in any sport comes with a risk for injury, the benefits of physical activity outweigh the downsides.[...]

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ACL Injuries: What can you do?

Player jumps for the basketball, lands awkwardly, tears their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Sound familiar? ACL injuries are most common in high intensity sports, such as basketball, football, and gymnastics. When the injury occurs, the player knows it-they hear and feel a "pop" in the knee. Suffering from an ACL injury can put a great damper on your recreational goals and may put you on the sidelines for months. Here, I will discuss a few key exercises to help prevent ACL injuries. [...]

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Ringworm

You wake up one day and notice round, red patches on the skin that might appear crusty. The patches start to itch, form blisters, and result in hair loss if the scalp is affected. You start to panic, desperately trying to figure out what exactly is causing your skin condition. A quick search on Google immediately tells you that you may have ringworm. You start to panic more, thinking to yourself that you might have "worms" in your body. But fret not, because ringworm infections do not actually involve. [...]

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Shingles

You feel stabbing pain, itching and burning, headache, and blisters. Your skin comes down with a rash, red in nature and filled with fluid. You're wondering to yourself, "what's going on"? Many others are similarly confused, although the condition is fairly common, affecting one in three individuals in their lifetime. The culprit is shingles, a disease that causes painful blisters and rashes on one side of the body, often the torso and face. Over time, the blisters break and dry, creating a noticeable crust over the skin. Most people with shingles will only have one episode, but others may have recurrent episodes. [...]

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis. You might know what it is. It has a distinct and noticeable image-flaky, scaly, and red batches of skin that resemble a plaque. Psoriasis is fairly common, affecting 125 million people in the world. So what exactly is it? In general, it is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition that results in thick, dry, and scaling skin. It results from the excessive growth of skin cells that most commonly affects the elbows, knees, and scalp. The severity of the disease can be mild or severe, often affecting the quality of life of those affected. [...]

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Heat Rash

You scratch you scratch some more. The itchiness doesn't seem to go away and the redness persists. You wonder what might be causing the blisters and bumps on your skin and the culprit might be a common condition called heat rash. When you hear the word "heat" you might imagine sweating, or the lack of sweating in the case of heat rash. Heat rash occurs when sweat cannot properly evaporate, instead becoming clogged underneath our skin resulting in inflammation. [...]

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What causes Neck Pain?

Neck pain can occur in multitudes of areas ranging from the bottom of the head to the top of the shoulders. It is commonly caused by strain to the neck muscles which can hinder the movement of the head and neck. In addition, neck pain can be caused by injuries such as motor vehicle accidents or a fall from a height. This can cause whiplash - the sudden and rapid movement of the neck straining the neck muscles. [...]

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A Healthy Diet

What is a healthy diet? A healthy diet is one that either maintains or improves overall health. Choosing a variety from each of the four food groups from Canada's Food Guide, eating the recommended amount of food according to the age, sex and activity level, and limiting the intake of foods high in sodium, fat, and sugar all constitutes to a healthy diet [...]


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What causes Knee Pain?

Knee pain can be troublesome and can affect all types of individuals. It can limit or hinder the ability to perform daily tasks as simple as climbing stairs. Injury can cause knee pain due to torn ligaments or ruptured cartilage however, medical conditions such as arthritis, gout and various infections can result in knee pain as well. [...]



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Canadian Opioid Crisis

Canada is currently facing an opioid crisis that claimed the lives of 2458 Canadian residents in 2016. Opioid addiction is a public health concern that requires the collaboration between numerous parties including healthcare professionals, governments, communities, and individual members of society. In this blog, I will discuss key strategies and initiatives to help combat the opioid crisis. [...]

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Hip Pain

The hip - known to be the largest ball and socket joint of our bodies, can withstand significant wear and tear. It takes considerable force to seriously damage a healthy hip. Whenever the hip is being exercised, the cartilage (rubber-like padding) prevents friction and allows for smooth movement of the hip. Over time and constant use, the cartilage can start to wear down leading to increased friction and ultimately hip pain. [...]

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New Resistance to Antibiotics and why it's becoming a worldwide problem.

Antibiotics are drugs that are used to treat and prevent bacterial infections. However, with the increasing worldwide use of them over the years, humans [...]

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